I revised my proposed definition of object based on feedback, to be more general. Please put comments on the original post. I'm very interested in getting more feedback on the definition.
3 years ago
Functional programming is a style of programming that emphasizes the evaluation of functional expressions, rather than execution of commands. The expressions in these languages are formed by using functions to combine basic values.
A functional programming language is a language that supports and encourages functional programming. The oldest example is LISP. More recent examples include Scheme, ML, Haskell, Erlang, Clean.Lisp is identified as the first functional language, and Schema, ML and Haskell are on equal footing.
Functional programming is a programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions. In contrast to imperative programming, functional programming emphasizes the evaluation of functional expressions, rather than execution of commands. The expressions in these languages are formed by using functions to combine basic values.
Functional programming is a programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions. Functional programming emphasizes the definition of functions rather than the implementation of state machines, in contrast to procedural programming, which emphasizes the execution of sequential commands. A purely functional program does not modify state to produce values (as is done in imperative programming), it constructs new values from (but does not overwrite) existing values.
There is still a distinction between (ordinary) functional programming and the "pure" form of functional programming, which avoids the use of mutable state. At this point there was a small but significant change, in the middle of the night, with no fanfare, by an unknown person. At 01:07 on 29 May 2006 it was changed to read:There is no uniform agreement on what constitutes functional programming or a functional programming language. Often considered important are higher-order and first-class functions, closures, and recursion. Other common features of functional programming languages are continuations, Hindley-Milner type inference systems, non-strict evaluation (i.e. "laziness"), and monads.
Functional programming is a programming style that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. Functional programming emphasizes the definition of functions, in contrast to procedural programming, which emphasizes the execution of sequential commands.
Functional programming relies on concepts from the lambda calculus, Lisp, and more recently Haskell. Frequently mentioned are the avoidance of state and side-effects (which provides for referential transparency), higher order functions, recursion, and closures.
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. It emphasizes the application of functions, in contrast to the imperative programming style, which emphasizes changes in state. Functional programming has its roots in lambda calculus, a formal system developed in the 1930s to investigate function definition, function application, and recursion. Many functional programming languages can be viewed as elaborations on the lambda calculus.
In practice, the difference between a mathematical function and the notion of a "function" used in imperative programming is that imperative functions can have side effects, changing the value of program state. Because of this, they lack referential transparency, i.e. the same language expression can result in different values at different times depending on the state of the executing program. Conversely, in functional code, the output value of a function depends only on the arguments that are input to the function, so calling a function f twice with the same value for an argument x will produce the same result f(x) both times. Eliminating side effects can make it much easier to understand and predict the behavior of a program, which is one of the key motivations for the development of functional programming.
 Paul Hudak. 1989. Conception, evolution, and application of functional programming languages. ACM Computing Surveys volume 21, issue 3 (September 1989).What are the implications of this? How did this change come about? Are we in the midst of a (small) scientific revolution? Who is behind this?
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Update: The numbers for USA are even worse: